IWGSCThe bread wheat genome in Ensembl Plants is the Chromosome Survey Sequence (CSS) for Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring, combined with the reference sequence of chromosome 3B, both generated by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium. The CSS assemblies have been further refined into chromosomal pseudomolecules using POPSEQ data generated by Chapman et al. The gene models for 3B were annotated by the GDEC group at INRA. For all other chromosomes, gene models were generated by PGSB (version 2.2). The data presented here has been prepared as part of the Triticeae Genomics for Sustainable Agriculture project, funded by the U.K. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Reseach Council.

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Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is a major global cereal grain essential to human nutrition. Wheat was one of the first cereals to be domesticated, originating in the fertile crescent around 7000 years ago. Bread wheat is hexaploid, with a genome size estimated at ~17 Gbp, composed of three closely-related and independently maintained genomes that are the result of a series of naturally occurring hybridization events. The ancestral progenitor genomes are considered to be Triticum urartu (the A-genome donor) and an unknown grass thought to be related to Aegilops speltoides (the B-genome donor). This first hybridization event produced tetraploid emmer wheat (AABB, T. dicoccoides) which hybridized again with Aegilops tauschii (the D-genome donor) to produce modern bread wheat.

Taxonomy ID 4565

Data source IWGSC

More information and statistics

Gene annotation

What can I find? Protein-coding and non-coding genes, splice variants, cDNA and protein sequences, non-coding RNAs.

More about this genebuild

Download genes, cDNAs, ncRNA, proteins - FASTA


What can I find? Short sequence variants.

More about variation in Triticum aestivum

More about variation in Ensembl Plants

Download all variants - GVF - VCF

Wheat sequence search v2.0 online

Full sequence-based searching of the wheat genome is now available within the standard Ensembl Genomes sequence search facilities (ENA search and BLAST). The previous custom wheat-only search has now been discontinued.


About this species